John Bull

John BullJohn Bull is the English equivalent of Uncle Sam, a personification of England and the English people.

The term dates to 1712 and first appears as a character in John Arbuthnot’s satire The Law Is a Bottomless Pit. By the end of the 18th century, John Bull was being used as a metaphor for England. From a 1778 letter from John Adams to his wife, Abigail:

France...assisted the American cause, for which John Bull abused and fought her. But John will come off wretchedly.

The familiar appearance as a top-hatted, paunchy, Victorian gentleman dates to the nineteenth century and the cartoons by John Tenniel (perhaps most famous for his illustrations for Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland).

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

jody

Ain’t no use in going home
Jody’s got your girl and gone
[...] Gonna get a three-day pass
Just to kick old Jody’s ass.
— U.S. Army marching cadence, a.1944

Anyone who has seen a movie about the U.S. Army has heard soldiers chanting and singing as they march or run. These chants or cadences are called jodies or jody calls, after a character in many of the songs. The character Jody is a civilian back home who has stolen the affections of the soldier’s sweetheart. From The Chicago Defender, 20 November 1943:

I overheard some soldiers referring to me as “Jody in an army uniform.”

The military use of jody was introduced to the U.S. Army by African-American soldiers. Jody is a clipping of the name of Joe the Grinder, a slightly older character in jazz and blues mythology.

Joe the Grinder is the name of mythical ladies man in blues tunes who seduces the wives and sweethearts of prisoners and soldiers. He’s also known as Joe De Grinder and Joe D. Grinder. The term dates to at least 1939. Grinder is from an old slang verb, to grind, meaning to copulate. From The Ladies Parliament (1647):

Digbies Lady takes it ill, that her Lord grinds not at her mill.

(Source: Historical Dictionary of American Slang; Proquest Historical Newspapers)

jinx

A jinx is a person or thing that carries bad luck. The origin is unknown, but Douglas Wilson has suggested an etymology that could very well be correct.

According to Wilson’s hypothesis, jinx comes from a character named Jinks Hoodoo in the 1887 play Little Puck starring Frank Daniels. The cast list, as printed in the New York Daily Tribune of 18 January 1888, described the character as:

Jinks Hoodoo, esq., a curse to everybody

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jerry-built / jury rig

These two terms have different origins and different meanings, although they are becoming conflated in common usage.

Jerry-built, meaning shoddy construction, dates to 1869. From the 1869 Lonsdale Glossary:

Jerry-built, slightly, or unsubstantially built.

The origin of jerry-built is unknown. One assumes that it is somehow related to the name Jerry, but exactly how is not known.

Jury rig, while similar sounding, has a slightly different meaning, emphasizing the temporary nature of the solution and can imply an ingenious solution done with materials at hand. Jerry-built, on the other hand, is often used for a permanent, but poorly built, construction and has no positive connotation.

The origin of jury rig is nautical and is taken from the term jury mast. A jury mast is a temporary mast erected to hold sail when the normal mast has been lost due to storm or battle. From Captain John Smith’s The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England and the Summer Isles, penned in 1616:

We had reaccommodated her a Iury mast, and the rest, to returne for Plimouth.

It is commonly thought that jury mast is a clipped form of injury mast, but no evidence of this longer term has been found. This form of jury is etymologically unrelated to the jury that sits in judgment at a trial.

The term jury rig itself appears in 1788. From Thomas Newte’s A Tour in England and Scotland published in that year:

The ships to be jury rigged: that is, to have smaller masts, yards, and rigging, than would be required for actual service.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

jerk / jerkwater / jerk-off / jerky

Jerk is an old word, dating to the sixteenth century. The word echoes the sound made by a short, sharp movement. The original sense is that of a blow or stroke of a whip. From Miles Coverdale’s 1550 A Spyrytuall and Moost Precious Perle:

Than he beateth and gierketh vs a little with a rod.

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jury rig

See jerry-built.

Jeep

The M-38, Truck, Utility, 1/4-ton is better known by its moniker, Jeep. Introduced during WWII, the jeep became famous as the general-purpose transport of the U.S. and allied armed forces. It was so successful as a military vehicle that it was still in military service during the late 1980s (slightly changed and with a new M-151 designation) when I spent many unenviable hours bouncing around Germany in one. The military vehicle spawned the commercial line of sports utility vehicles, now produced by Chrysler. But where did the name jeep come from?

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jaywalk

This term for crossing the street in the middle of the block is U.S. slang dating to the early years of the 20th century. It comes from the sense of jay meaning a stupid person, a rube.

The earliest known use has the term in a slightly different sense, that of someone who is walking aimlessly. From the Washington Post on 7 May 1911:

Kansas City used to consider itself a town of jay walkers. That is another line in which New York deserves the discredit of being at the front of the procession. A typical Manhattan would be run over and trampled on the sidewalk if he tried to walk on State street in Chicago as he walks on Broadway, New York. He has never heard of the prehistoric principle of keeping to the right—he ambles all over the sidewalk.

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java / joe

These are a couple of slang terms for coffee. Java is the older of the two and the one with a known etymology. It is a reference to the island of Java in Indonesia, a place where coffee is grown. The term appears as early as 1823 in the pages of the Christian Spectator of 1 February of that year:

The most remarkable general characteristic of these works is their common relation to the Waverly Novels—a relation very much the same with that which ‘Roger’s Columbian Coffee’ bears to the real Java.

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Jack Robinson

The phrase before you can say Jack Robinson means very quickly, in no time at all. But who was Jack Robinson and how did his name become associated with speed? The answer is we don’t really know, but there are many different explanations.

We do know that the phrase dates to at least 1778 when it appears in Fanny Burney’s Evelina:

I’d do it as soon as say Jack Robinson.

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