leech

Leech is a noun with two distinct meanings, or perhaps it is more accurately stated that leech is two separate nouns that are spelled the same and often conflated. The word is the name for a type of blood-sucking invertebrate, and it also is an archaic term for a physician or healer. The two senses are associated because physicians used to (and in some limited applications still do) use the worms to draw blood out of a patient. The conflation of the two goes back to Old English, where læce is the word for both a physician and a bloodsucker, but the two senses apparently come from distinct roots.

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graduand

I learned a new word yesterday, graduand: a candidate for graduation at a school or university; someone who has completed the requirements of a degree, but hasn’t received their diploma yet.

The oldest citation in the OED is from the 1882 Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, so the word is bound to be somewhat older than that. The word comes to English from the medieval Latin graduandus, which is the gerundive of the verb graduare, to graduate.

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Who We Are

Dave Wilton

Dave Wilton has a PhD in English Literature from the University of Toronto, with a specialization in Old English language and literature. His research focus is cognitive approaches to Old English lit, and his dissertation examines how metaphors in Old English literature can explicate Anglo-Saxon ideas and conceptions of the mind, agency, and free will. Dave also has an M.A. from George Washington University in National Security Policy Studies and a B.A. from Lafayette College in Government and Law. He is also the author of Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends (Oxford University Press, 2004).

In past lives, Dave has worked as a marketing writer/editor and as a product manager for 3D graphics and digital television technologies at NVIDIA and OpenTV, for Science Applications International Corporation as a manager of programs that dismantled the nuclear stockpiles of the former Soviet Union, and as an arms control negotiator for the Pentagon.


Lila

Lila is the staff assistant here at Wordorigins.org. Her duties include reception and greeting of visitors, multiple daily perambulations, self-defenestration, mastication of assorted objects, and olfactory investigations.

David Peterson on Invented Languages

David Peterson is the inventor of a number of languages used in various movies and TV shows, perhaps most famously Dothraki, the language of the nomadic horse people in Game of Thrones. This video is of a recent talk he gave at Google on how he, and others, create fictional languages. The depth of linguistic knowledge required in this craft and the art in how he applies it to create realistic languages is quite amazing.

The video is an hour long, but well worth it.

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Grits (Canadian political term)

I learned a new Canadianism this morning. The Liberal Party just won the federal election last night, and today the news outlets are referring to them as the Grits, as in this article from the Toronto Star:

The Grits were elected or leading in all 32 ridings in Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, turning their backs on the 13 incumbent Conservatives and six New Democrats.

But the name for the Liberals is a very old one, and even predates the modern political party. The OED has citations from 1884, but antedatings can be easily found.

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John Oliver on Quotes

John Oliver goes off on bad quotations:

One thing he doesn’t mention, however, are quotation websites, which are notoriously unreliable. (I won’t provide any links because I don’t want to drive traffic to them.) Rule of thumb: if the specific source of the quotation is not given, down to the page number, don’t trust that it is correct.

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hip hip hooray

The cheer, also commonly spelled hip hip hurrah, as we know it today dates to the early nineteenth century, but its components go back a bit further. 

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trigger warning, trigger

Trigger warnings have been a focus of some rather highly charged discussion at universities across North America lately. A trigger warning is a notice posted at the beginning of material, such as that depicting rape or violence, that may act as a catalyst or trigger for those suffering post-traumatic stress, so that they can mentally prepare themselves to view the material or to avoid it altogether. In the university context, there have been a number of student requests that professors provide trigger warnings for any such material that the students will encounter during their course work. The debate is over whether or not such warnings are warranted or appropriate in the university environment, and if so, how and when they should be delivered and for what types of material.

Putting aside the argument (which is actually less about the warnings per se and more a proxy and rallying flag for familiar progressive and conservative positions in a more general political debate), where and when did the term trigger warning arise?

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Interactive Guide to Ambiguous Grammar

If you’re not familiar with McSweeney’s Internet Tendency, you should be. This particular column takes on the passive voice and other modes of ambiguous grammar.

I particularly like the “past exonerative tense.”

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[Tip o’ the hat to Matt Sergi for pointing this one out to me.]

fuck

Tracing the origin of this word has been a difficult one for etymologists and lexicographers. Because it has been a taboo word for many centuries, there is little record to go on. But modern etymologists have pieced together the history, albeit with some gaps still existing here and there.

We know that fuck is of Germanic origin. Note that is Germanic and not German—an important distinction. It does not come from the modern German verb ficken. Instead, these two words probably share a common root. Fuck also has cognates in other Northern European languages: the Middle Dutch fokken meaning to thrust, to copulate; the dialectical Norwegian fukka meaning to copulate; and the dialectical Swedish focka meaning to strike, push, copulate, and fock meaning penis. And both French and Italian have similar words, foutre and fottere respectively. These derive from the Latin futuere. The relation between this Latin root and the Germanic ones, if any, is uncertain.

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