honky / hunky / hunyak / honyock

These are all contemptuous terms for white people, usually used by African Americans.

These terms are originally references to Eastern European immigrants. The origin may a blend of Hun + Polack. From the Chicago Daily Tribune of 14 May 1906:

Hun, Pole, Austrian, Bulgarian, Bohemian—the “Hunkies” of Illinois Steel colloquialism—indifferent to pain of shattered, burned, mangled body, grow frantic as the stretcher bearers near this fortress hospital.

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Honeymoon was originally a reference to the first month of a marriage. The honey represents the sweetness of new love and the moon signifies the changing relationship and that this love will quickly wane. The word first appears in John Heywood’s 1546 A Dialogue Conteinyng The Nomber In Effect Of All The Prouerbes In The Englishe Tongue:

It was yet but hony moone.

Richard Huloet’s 1552 Abcedarium Anglico Latinum described it as:

Hony mone, a terme prouerbially applied to such as be newe maried, whiche wyll not fall out at the fyrste, but thone loueth the other at the beginnynge excedyngly, the likelyhode of theyr exceadynge loue appearing to aswage, ye which time the vulgar people cal the hony mone, Aphrodisia, feriæ, hymenæ.

The verb, meaning to take a honeymoon trip, is more recent, dating to the early 19th century. From an 1821 letter by Mary R. Mitford appearing in Alfred G. L’Estrange’s The Life of M.R. Mitford:

How did I know but you were tourifying or honeymooning?

There is a story floating around the internet that honeymoon derives from the Babylonian practice of a new father-in-law giving mead, or honey beer, to his new son-in-law for the first month of their marriage. This is utter bunk.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)


Homecoming is a peculiarly American phenomenon. It is a reference to alumni returning to their school for a visit, associated festivities and a big football game.

The term dates to at least 1913, when it is used in a 16 November article in the Chicago Daily Tribune:

Illinois, fired to superhuman endeavor by the presence of a big crowd of homecoming alumni, not only fought the confident Purdue team to a scoreless tie but also threatened many times to claim victory.

Some claim that a homecoming is a game played on one’s home field after a series of games on the road. This is a minority usage and not the original sense.

(Source: Proquest Historical Newspapers)

hogan’s goat

The phrase like Hogan’s goat refers to something that is faulty, messed up, or stinks like a goat. The phrase is a reference to R.F. Outcault’s seminal newspaper comic Hogan’s Alley, which debuted in 1895. The title of the strip changed to The Yellow Kid the following year.

Various references to Hogan’s goat can be found throughout the early 20th century, usually in reference to a person named Hogan. The earliest metaphorical reference I have found is in the Washington Post on 9 April 1940:

The fans will love it. They don’t know a thoroughbred from Hogan’s Goat.

And there is this which was published in the World War II Times at some point late in the war:

An old Navy descriptive phrase for total confusion is “fouled up like Hogan’s goat.” This is an accurate account of a PBY early wartime patrol that was, indeed fouled up like Hogan’s goat and therein lies a tale.

(Source: Proquest Historical Newspapers)


We all know that hocus-pocus is a term used in magician’s patter, the "magic words" that make the trick happen. But where does the term come from?

The term first appears as the name of a juggler or magician in the early 17th century. From John Gee’s New Shreds of the Old Snare, written in 1624:

I alwayes thought they had their rudiments from some iugling Hocas Pocas in a quart pot.

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Hobson’s choice

We debunk a lot of eponymic origins on these pages, but this is one in which the usual story is an accurate accounting of the origin of the phrase. A Hobson’s choice is no choice at all, you take what you’re given and you like it. But exactly who was Hobson?

Tobias Hobson (c.1544-1631) was a Cambridge stable manager who let horses. He was quite well known by the intelligentsia of England at the time, operating a coach run between the Bull tavern in London and the university for over sixty years and carrying virtually every Cambridge student and visitor to the university in his coach at one time or another. Milton wrote two epitaphs to Hobson upon his death:

Here lies old Hobson, Death hath broke his girt,
And here alas, hath laid him in the dirt,
Or els the ways being foul, twenty to one,
He’s here stuck in a slough, and overthrown.


Here lieth one who did most truly prove,
That he could never die while he could move.

When hiring a horse, Hobson insisted customers take the horse in the stall closest to the door (the next one up) or take none at all.

The phrase Hobson’s choice appears some thirty years after the stablemaster’s death, in Samuel Fisher’s 1660 Rusticus ad academicos etc. The rustick’s alarm to the Rabbies:

If in this Case there be no other (as the Proverb is) then Hobson’s choice...which is, chuse whether you will have this or none.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)


To a New Yorker, a hero isn’t a guy who rescues children from burning buildings or jumps on a grenade to save his comrades in arms. No, a hero is a really big sandwich. This term for a sandwich, called in other parts of the country a submarine, a grinder, a poor boy, or a hoagie, dates to at least 1947. From the New York Naval Shipyard Shipworker, 19 February of that year:

The picture of Frank La Barbera in the last issue of the Shipworker showed him eating a large ham sandwich.  They should take a snapshot of you, Frank, when you devour your 3 Heros at lunch time.

Its origin is a bit of mystery, but the most likely reason for the name is that it is a big sandwich and takes a heroic effort to eat it.

It’s sometimes claimed that New York Herald-Tribune food columnist Clementine Paddleford coined hero in the 1930s, but searches of her columns have failed to find any use of the word by her.

Others claim that it comes from gyros, the Greek sandwich. This is almost certainly incorrect. English use of gyros isn’t attested to until 1968.

(Source: ADS-L)

hermetic seal

A hermetic seal is one that is air-tight, or in other words, tightly closed. Hermetic seems to be a reference to Hermes, the ancient Greek messenger-god. But how did Hermes become associated with an air-tight seal?

In the third century A.D., the philosophical school of the Neo-platonists arose in Alexandria. They associated the Egyptian god Thoth, the god of alchemy and mystical secrets and inventor of a magical seal, with Hermes, calling him Hermes Trismegistus. In the seventeenth century, English writers began using the adjective hermetic to refer to things that were sealed or secret. From Jeremy Taylor’s 1663 Sermon preached at the funeral of John (Bramhall) late Lord Archbishop of Armagh:

Not nature, but grace and glory, with an hermetic seal, give us a new signature.

So Hermes is associated with the seal only through the habit of conquering nations to associate their gods with the local gods.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)


It’s often stated that hello was created specifically for the telephone; that we didn’t have this word prior to Bell’s invention. This is not quite true.

It is true that the spelling and pronunciation of hello is only as old as the telephone. From John Hay’s The Breadwinners of 1883:

Hello, Andy! you asleep.

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hell in a handbasket

To hell in a handbasket simply means going to seed without effort, a handbasket being easy to carry. The phrase appears as early as 1865 in I. Winslow Ayer’s The Great North-Western Conspiracy In All Its Startling Details:

All who were thus incarcerated should be set at liberty; that thousands of our best men were prisoners in Camp Douglas, and if once at liberty would “send abolitionists to hell in a hand basket;” he said the meanest of those prisoners was purity itself compared to “Lincoln’s hirelings.”

A less common variant, go to heaven in a handbasket, dates to 1880, when it appears in the Washington Post on 16 November:

He feels that but for the almost superhuman efforts the Stalwarts, like Grant, Conkling, Cameron and Logan, made after the disaster in Maine, he would have had no more chance of election than of going to heaven in a hand-basket, and he will not quarrel with them.

(Source: ADS-L; Making of America (Michigan); Proquest Historical Newspapers)

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