bull & bear markets

These two stock market terms appear in the early 18th century. Bear was the first to appear, referring to the practice of selling stock one does not yet own for delivery at a future date. The expectation would be that the price would fall in the meantime, enabling the speculator to buy the stock at a lower price. Such speculators were called bear-skin jobbers after the proverb to sell the bear’s skin before one has caught the bear. Gradually, the term took on the meaning of being generally pessimistic about stock prices. From Sir Richard Steele’s Tatler of 1709:

Being at that General Mart of Stock-Jobbers called Jonathans...he bought the bear of another officer.

And:

I fear the Word Bear is hardly to be understood among the polite People; but I take the meaning to be, That one who ensures a Real Value upon an Imaginary Thing, is said to sell a Bear.

Bull appears a few years later, in 1714, and was almost certainly influenced by bear. From Charles Johnson’s The Country Lasses of that year:

You deal in Bears and Bulls.

There is commonly told story that the origin of these terms stems from the fighting styles of the two animals. A bear presses down on its opponents, crushing them, while a bull hooks them with its horns and lifts them skywards. This is just bunk with no evidence to support it.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

bated breath

Several people have emailed me asking where bated breath comes from. Bate is a verb dating to the beginning of the 14th century meaning to deprive or to lessen; it is a clipped form of abate.

Shakespeare was the first writer we know of to use bated breath, in 1596 in The Merchant of Venice, I.iii.125:

With bated breath, and whispring humblenesse.

Like most of Shakespeare’s alleged coinages, this is probably not an invention of the Bard; his use has simply survived while the writings of earlier and lesser writers have perished.

The term is often seen as baited breath, which is not a bad case of halitosis, but rather a misspelling.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

barbecue

This American contribution to international cuisine actually originated in the Caribbean, and the word comes to us via Spanish from its Indian roots. The original sense of barbecue is that of a raised, wooden (later metal) framework used for either sleeping upon or curing meats. The Indians of Guiana called it a babracot and the Haitians a barbacòa. The Spanish acquired the Haitian word and it came into English from the Spanish.

The earliest English citation, used for a sleeping platform, is from 1697, in William Dampier’s A New Voyage Round The World:

And lay there all night, upon our Borbecu’s, or frames of Sticks, raised about 3 foot from the Ground.

By 1733 the word was being used for an open-air, social gathering featuring the grilling of meat. From the diary of a B. Lynde:

Fair and hot; Browne, barbacue; hack overset.

Barbecue has at least one false etymology that is commonly promulgated on the internet and elsewhere. It is claimed that it comes from the French barbe (beard) and queue (tail); the idea being that an entire pig is roasted, from head, or beard, to tail. This is simply not the origin of the word.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

bandwagon, jump on the

One of the more frequent questions to this site’s discussion forum has been where the phrase jump on the bandwagon comes from. The confusion stems from the fact that the phrase survives into the 21st century while bandwagons are long gone.

In 19th and early 20th century America, a bandwagon was exactly what it sounds like, a wagon, usually horse-drawn, which carried a musical band. Bandwagons were used in circuses, to lead parades, and at political rallies. Hence to join or jump on the bandwagon was to follow the crowd, and in a political context with the connotation that one was there for the entertainment and excitement of the event, rather than from deep or firm conviction.

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balls to the wall

The phrase balls to the wall, meaning an all-out effort, comes from the world of aviation. On an airplane, the handles controlling the throttle and the fuel mixture are often topped with ball-shaped grips, referred to by pilots as (what else?) balls. Pushing the balls forward, close to the front wall of the cockpit increases the amount of fuel going to the engines and results in the highest possible speed.

The earliest written citation is from 1967, appearing in Frank Harvey’s Air War—Vietnam:

You know what happened on that first Doomsday Mission (as the boys call a big balls-to-the-wall raid) against Hanoi oil.1

And:

You’re in good hands with Gen. Disosway as long as you go in on those targets balls to the wall. Never mind the brownie points.2

Several Korean War-era veterans have written me noting their use of the term during their service. The phrase may very well date to this earlier war, although we have no written evidence for it.

There are two common misconceptions about the phrase. The first is that it is a reference to a part of the male anatomy.

The second is that it arose in railroad work. A speed governor on train engines would have round, metal weights at the end of arms. As the speed increased, the spinning balls would rise--being perpendicular to the walls at maximum speed. But there is no evidence to support either of these two stories. No use of the phrase is known to exist prior to the mid-1960s, and all the early cites are from military aviation.


1Frank Harvey, Air War--Vietnam (New York: Bantam Books, 1967), 144.

2Ibid., 150.

baker’s dozen

The popular tale behind this phrase’s origin is that a medieval law specified the weight of loaves of bread and any baker who shorted a customer was in for dire punishment. So, bakers would include a thirteenth loaf with each dozen just to be safe. The story is partly true. There was such a law, but the practice of adding an extra loaf to the dozen had nothing to do with fear of punishment.

The law in question was the Assize of Bread and Ale, first promulgated in England in 1266. There are various versions of the law promulgated over the years, but they all regulated the size and price of loaves of bread that were sold on the market. During years of good harvests, bakers could make more bread than they could sell locally, so they would sell the excess loaves to hucksters, or middlemen. But since the size and price were strictly regulated, the only way for these distributors to make money would be for the baker to give them extra loaves. The baker would give the huckster a thirteenth, or vantage, loaf for each dozen. This extra loaf provided the profit for the middleman.

The practice of adding the thirteenth loaf is older than the phrase. The phrase only dates to 1599.

(Sources: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition; Harvard Law School Library)

bailiwick

Bailiwick is an old legal term from England, a compound of bailie + -wick. Bailie is an obsolete form of bailiff, an administrative official, from the Middle English and Old French bailli; -wick is from the Old English wic, meaning dwelling, farm, town, or enclosed space.

The term bailiwick dates to the mid-15th century and originally meant the district under a bailiff’s jurisdiction. The legal sense meaning a jurisdiction is still current. The term was brought to America in the mid-19th century, where it generalized to mean a person’s sphere of knowledge or expertise.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

by and large

By and large is nautical in origin, originally referring to the sailing qualities of a vessel.

To sail by the wind is to sail directly into the wind (or as close into the wind as is possible). A large wind is one that comes from the stern quarter (on a square-rigged vessel, if the wind is directly astern only the rear sails catch it, therefore the most favorable wind comes from slightly off one side where it will fill all the sails). Therefore, a ship that sails well by and large sails well in all directions.

The nautical sense dates to 1669, from Samuel Sturmy’s Mariner’s Magazine:

Thus you see the ship handled in fair weather and foul, by and learge.

The general sense, meaning in one direction in another, in all ways, on the whole, was evident by 1833, in John Neal’s Down-Easters:

A man who feels rather perplexed on the whole, take it by and large.

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

buy the farm

To buy the farm is to die, usually in a battle or aircraft accident. It has spawned several false explanations of its origin. The phrase as we know it dates to the 1950s, but has its roots in older variants. The farm in the phrase is a metaphor for a grave, the last plot of land a soldier will own.

The earliest variant is the phrase to buy it. From W. N. Glascock’s Naval Sketch-Book in 1825:

Never mind, in closing with Crappo, if we didn’t buy it with his raking broadsides.

Crappo in this quotation is a slang word for the French, especially used in reference to French sailors.

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busman’s holiday

A busman’s holiday is a day off from work spent doing the things one does on the job. It comes from the idea that a bus driver would spend his holiday traveling somewhere on a bus. The phrase dates originally referred to horse-drawn buses. From the English Illustrated Magazine of 1893:

I shall indeed take a holiday soon,...but it will be a “Busman’s Holiday.”

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)

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