chi-square, n. ... It basically supplies an answer to how good your hypothesis fits the data.
I believe you want “how well” there (and I suspect you rewrote that sentence enough to lose track of the details, which happens to all of us).
perfect storm, n. Made famous by Sebastian Junger’s 1997 book of this title ... The figurative use of the term in other fields dates from Junger’s book.
I’m not sure what you mean by “the figurative use of the term in other fields”; if you mean “the use of the term specifically playing off the title of Junger’s book,” then it’s a tautology to say it “dates from Junger’s book,” but otherwise it’s simply wrong. I’ve heard and read the phrase “a perfect storm [of X]” all my life, and it goes back well before that: “A perfect storm of discontent had arisen” (1888), “a perfect storm of applause” (1859), “a perfect storm of uterine contractions” (1848), “a perfect storm of musketry” (1846), etc. And of course, the literal sense is attested way back as well: “the wind having increased to a perfect storm” (1812).
The Richter scale has largely been superseded by the moment magnitude scale, but that scale, which was devised in the 1970s, is often incorrectly dubbed the Richter scale by the popular media.
Not to be tiresome, but if people in general call it the Richter scale (as I believe they do—I’ve certainly never heard anyone talk about “the moment magnitude scale"), then that is its name, whatever specialists may prefer. I’ve beaten this drum on the topic of tidal waves as well.