Growing up in New England, I learned “blond-headed”.
“Blond-haired” seems slightly odd to my ear, though I probably use it from time to time. It’s nice to have some extra words for the same thing to use as an option.
A quick check on google books shows some use of “blond headed” around the 1930’s and onward, but it appears to be far less common than “blond haired”. Roughly the same for “blonde headed” vs. “blonde haired”.
Would I ever use “black-headed” or “brown-headed”? No.