Yes, it was still common when I was a lad (1950s) to hear of shopkeepers, etc casting their accounts.
I. 1. Anything used in counting or keeping account:
a. A round piece of metal, ivory, or other material, formerly used in performing arithmetical operations. Obs.
c1310 Know Thyself 38 in E.E.P. (1862) 131 Sitte doun and take countures rounde.. And for vche a synne lay thou doun on Til thou thi synnes haue souyght vp and founde.
b. In later times used chiefly in keeping an account or reckoning in games of chance, esp. cards. (These counters are of various shapes, according to convenience.)
1579 TOMSON Calvin’s Serm. Tim. 105/2 They cast it into the winde, they played with it as with a counter.
c. Also, applied to the ‘pieces’ or ‘men’ used in playing shovelboard, chess, draughts and other games; also fig.
1605 R. ARMIN Foole upon F. (1880) 21 All alone he playd at slide groate, as his manner was: peeces or counters he had none.
1. = jetton
A piece of metal, ivory, or other material, bearing an inscription or device, formerly used as a counter in casting up accounts and in card-playing. Also applied to medals or tokens of various kinds.
1933 H. G. WELLS Shape of Things to Come II. §11. 229 Today our museums contain hundreds of thousands of specimens of these improvised European coins of lead, nickel, tin and all sorts of alloys, jetons or checks of wood. 1969 R. C. BELL Board & Table Games II. x. 138 Many of these casting-counters, or jetons, simulated coins, and cause difficulty to collectors of medieval money.
2. A metal disc used, chiefly in France, instead of a coin for insertion in a public telephone box. Also attrib.
1942 E. PAUL Narrow St. xi. 82 In order for a client to use the phone he had to buy from her a metal disc or jeton.